As night approaches within the final moments of the song, death is slowly approaching alongside the end of the year. Cambridge University Press ,
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Autumn is not depicted as actually harvesting but as seated, resting or watching. Near the end of the stanza, the steadiness of the gleaner in lines 19—20 again emphasises a motionlessness within the poem. The last stanza contrasts Autumn's sounds with those of Spring. The sounds that are presented are not only those of Autumn but essentially the gentle sounds of the evening. Gnats wail and lambs bleat in the dusk. As night approaches within the final moments of the song, death is slowly approaching alongside the end of the year.
The full-grown lambs, like the grapes, gourds and hazel nuts, will be harvested for the winter. The twittering swallows gather for departure, leaving the fields bare. The whistling red-breast and the chirping cricket are the common sounds of winter. The references to Spring, the growing lambs and the migrating swallows remind the reader that the seasons are a cycle, widening the scope of this stanza from a single season to life in general.
Of all of Keats's poems, "To Autumn", with its catalogue of concrete images,  most closely describes a paradise as realized on earth while also focusing on archetypal symbols connected with the season. Within the poem, autumn represents growth, maturation and finally an approaching death.
There is a fulfilling union between the ideal and the real. For example, in his "Ode to Melancholy" a major theme is the acceptance of the process of life. When this theme appears later in "To Autumn",  however, it is with a difference. This time the figure of the poet disappears, and there is no exhortation of an imaginary reader.
There are no open conflicts, and "dramatic debate, protest, and qualification are absent". Critics have tended to emphasize different aspects of the process. Some have focused on renewal; Walter Jackson Bate points to the theme of each stanza including "its contrary" idea, here death implying, though only indirectly, the renewal of life.
Others, like Harold Bloom , have emphasized the "exhausted landscape", the completion, the finality of death, although "Winter descends here as a man might hope to die, with a natural sweetness". If death in itself is final, here it comes with a lightness, a softness, also pointing to "an acceptance of process beyond the possibility of grief. The rich description of the cycle of the seasons enables the reader to feel a belonging "to something larger than the self", as James O'Rourke expresses it, but the cycle comes to an end each year, analogous to the ending of single life.
O'Rourke suggests that something of a fear of that ending is subtly implied at the end of the poem,  although, unlike the other great odes, in this poem the person of the poet is entirely submerged,  so there is at most a faint hint of Keats's own possible fear. According to Helen Vendler , "To Autumn" may be seen as an allegory of artistic creation.
As the farmer processes the fruits of the soil into what sustains the human body, so the artist processes the experience of life into a symbolic structure that may sustain the human spirit.
This process involves an element of self-sacrifice by the artist, analogous to the living grain's being sacrificed for human consumption. In "To Autumn", as a result of this process, the "rhythms" of the harvesting "artist-goddess" "permeate the whole world until all visual, tactile, and kinetic presence is transubstantiated into Apollonian music for the ear," the sounds of the poem itself. In a essay, Jerome McGann argued that while the poem was indirectly influenced by historical events, Keats had deliberately ignored the political landscape of McGann thinks to rescue Keats from the imputation of political naïveté by saying that he was a radical browbeaten into quietism".
More recently, in , a specific probable location of the cornfield that inspired Keats was discussed in an article by Richard Marggraf Turley , Jayne Archer and Howard Thomas, which draws upon new archival evidence. Traditionally, the water-meadows south of Winchester, along which Keats took daily leisurely walks, were assumed to have provided the sights and sounds of his ode. The land, previously a copse, had recently been turned over to food production to take advantage of high bread prices.
This new topography, the authors argue, enables us to see hitherto unsuspected dimensions to Keats's engagement with contemporary politics in particular as they pertained to the management of food production and supply, wages and productivity.
In his study of the effect on British literature of the diseases and climates of the colonies, Alan Bewell read "the landscape of 'To Autumn ' " as "a kind of biomedical allegory of the coming into being of English climatic space out of its dangerous geographical alternatives. Keats, with medical training,  having suffered chronic illness himself,  and influenced like his contemporaries by "colonial medical discourse",  was deeply aware of this threat.
According to Bewell, the landscape of "To Autumn" presents the temperate climate of rural England as a healthful alternative to disease-ridden foreign environments. In "To Autumn", Bewell argues, Keats was at once voicing "a very personal expression of desire for health"  and constructing a "myth of a national environment".
Thomas McFarland, on the other hand, in cautioned against overemphasizing the "political, social, or historical readings" of the poem, which distract from its "consummate surface and bloom". Like others of Keats's odes written in , the structure is that of an odal hymn , having three clearly defined sections corresponding to the Classical divisions of strophe , antistrophe , and epode.
There is, in the words of Walter Jackson Bate, "a union of process and stasis", "energy caught in repose", an effect that Keats himself termed "stationing". Like the other odes, "To Autumn" is written in iambic pentameter but greatly modified from the very beginning with five stressed syllables to a line, each usually preceded by an unstressed syllable.
Some of the language of "To Autumn" resembles phrases found in earlier poems with similarities to Endymion , Sleep and Poetry , and Calidore.
Between the manuscript version and the published version of "To Autumn" Keats tightened the language of the poem. One of Keats's changes emphasised by critics is the change in line 17 of "Drows'd with red poppies" to "Drows'd with the fume of poppies", which emphasises the sense of smell instead of sight.
The later edition relies more on passive , past participles , as apparent in the change of "While a gold cloud" in line 25 to "While barred clouds". Many of the lines within the second stanza were completely rewritten, especially those which did not fit into a rhyme scheme. Some of the minor changes involved adding punctuation missing from the original manuscript copy and altering capitalisation.
Choose a tour of the permanent collection or special exhibitions, enjoy an art workshop or a presentation. Enjoy the McMichael in a whole new way! To listen to our audio guided tour, please click on the link below. Drawing inspiration from paintings featured in the special exhibitions, the feature menus are designed by Chef Shawn Rovan to incorporate seasonal colours and vibrant aspects portrayed by the artists.
Every season brings a charming new view and a seasonal menu. With over acres of stunning woodland, our grounds have kilometres of trails perfect for hikers, naturalists, walkers and mountain bikers. Some of trails are wheelchair accessible — feel free to view our accessibility page or contact us for more information. Mackerel is fantastic for you and this main-meal salad couldn't be simpler to prepare. A prepare-ahead salad ideal for weekend entertaining. This velvety soup is unashamedly rich, just the thing for a special occasion.
A crisp and juicy rustic side dish, peppered with tangy olives and capers. This French-style main meal salad with roasted new potatoes makes a fabulous lunch. A rich side dish, perfect served alongside fish at your next dinner party. This simple salad is a flavourful, vegetarian side - perfect for al fresco summer dining. This sumptuous side dish uses small new potatoes cooked until buttery-soft inside with crispy skins on the outside. Pack your potatoes full of fresh summer herbs and enjoy outside in the sun.
Potato salad without the guilt - this creamy side is sure to be a hit, and is superhealthy too. Get fantastic results with minimum effort in this easy-to-make fish dish. Why buy ready-made potato salad for your barbecue when this fragrant, Indian-inspired version is so easy?
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Be inspired by the new PANDORA Pre-Autumn jewellery arrivals & express your style with theseiconic & timeless collections. Discover the new PANDORA range here. Home > Pre-Autumn Collection. Pre-Autumn Collection (51) Pre-Autumn Collection Express yourself with this season's newest arrivals, featuring iconic and classic jewelry designs. New Gear | Highlights In Fjällräven's New Autumn/Winter 18 Collection Some new and updated items that all pay homage to that classic jacket released 50 years ago, the Fjällräven Greenland. Second for Autumn is our Bloomsbury collection where we look to the home of artist Vanessa Bell, part of the famed ’s literary set. We echo her canvas-like walls, decorative motifs and the colours she favoured in our hand-sketched prints and embroidery.